Bsoton: J.A. Cummings & Co, . First Edition. 32 pp, in original illustrated wrappers. Some staining and chipping to wrappers, internally clean; very good. McDade 757. Sometimes described as America's first serial killer, Jesse Pomeroy was found guilty of first-degree murder and sentenced to death when just 14 years old. He had been tried for only one murder--that of 4-year-old Horace Millen--but was known to have also killed a nine-year-old girl and brutally beaten other young children. His case sparked heated debate in the local and national press over whether justice would only be served by the death penalty, or whether it was immoral to hang a boy who was only 14 at the time of his crime. Paralyzed by fear of political repercussions, the incumbent Governor of Massachusetts declined to either commute Pomeroy's sentence or to sign his death warrant. When a new Governor took office, he did commute the death sentence, but ordered that the young man be kept in solitary confinement for life. Pomeroy entered the Charlestown Prison at age 16 and spent next 53 years there, 41 of them in solitary confinement. Robert Stroud, the "Birdman of Alcatraz," is the only prisoner in American history known to have spent more time in solitary confinement. A documentary about this case called "Jesse Pomeroy: The Boston Boy Fiend" is in production as of July 2018.
List 9: Murder and Mayhem
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[Chico, CA]: Chico Morning Chronicle, June 24, 1882. Broadside, 7.25 x 10.5 inches. Old folding creases, a few tiny chips, signature ("Goddard") on verso bleeding through; very good. A rare surviving example of this short-lived (at least under this name) Chico, California newspaper, this extra recounts the discovery of the body of the Mrs. Schmidt "weltering in her gore and apparently lifeless" at the Opera Saloon on Main Street. Her husband of six months was immediately suspected, as the two had frequently been seen arguing in public and he had been jailed and then ordered out of town for assaulting her. Shortly after her murder he was found lying on the sidewalk, "still clutching the deadly pistol." Although he tried to pretend he had been poisoned, no one was fooled. According to this account, "the excitement caused by this dastard deed was intense, and loud threats of lynching were frequently heard." Justice (of the legal variety) was apparently swift, as a Los Angeles Herald article from two weeks later (July 6, 1882) reports that Schmidt was convicted and sentenced to be hanged. We find no examples of this extra in OCLC, and only a single holding of any issue of the Chico Morning Chronicle, at the California State Library.
Philadelphia: C.W. Alexander, . First Edition.  pp (paginated 18-48), in original wrappers, illustrated with a portrait of Probst and several views showing different features of the Dearing farm, where the crime occurred. Wrappers somewhat soiled and edgeworn, one horizontal tear (.75 in.) affecting all pages; good. Anton (or Antoine) Probst was a German immigrant who arrived in the United States in 1863. He drifted among jobs and scams (among them repeatedly joining the Union Army, collecting a bounty, deserting, and re-enlisting with a different unit) until, in 1865 he happened upon the Dearing farmstead in a rural part of South Philadelphia. Christoper Dearing took him on as a laborer, but Probst quit after three weeks, unwilling to work on "a rainy, very rough day." A few weeks later he was back, having blown all his savings on alcohol and prostitutes. Dearing re-hired him, not knowing that Probst had once observed him in possession of a sizeable amount of cash. This money was Probst's purported motivation for the vicious slaughter of all six members of the Dearing family, as well as two guests. After a brief but sensational trial, the jury convicted in just 20 minutes, and he sentenced to hang. McDade (772) notes that "After [Probst's] execution, the doctors had a field day with his cadaver, putting it through all kinds of tests, including one to test the theory that the retina of the eye of dying persons retains the last image seen." Of the several contemporary accounts of the case, this one appears to be the least common, with just 3 physical copies located in OCLC.
Utica, NY: Utica Globe, . Small broadside, 5.25 x 9.25 in, on tan newsprint. Fine. Advertises "a full account of [Durant's] remarkable crime and of his Jekyll and Hyde Life," to be published in the Saturday edition of the Utica Globe, accompanied by "photo-engravings illustrating the horrible story of murder at which the whole world stood aghast." William Henry Theodore Durrant (1871-1898), dubbed "The Demon of the Belfry," was hanged for raping and murdering two young women at the San Francisco Emanuel Baptist Church, where he was assistant superintendent of the Sunday School. Durrant was a well-liked member of the Signal Corps and a medical student. His outward respectability, combined with the brutality of his crimes and the setting in which he committed them, made for a truly sensational story that undoubtedly sold many newspapers.
Baltimore: Baltimore Gazette Printers, 1873. First Edition. 59 pp printed in double columns, w/frontis portrait of Goss. Original wrappers show light dust soiling, else fine. “Nonexistent in the 18th century, life insurance became a formidable industry in the 19th century, growing from fifteen chartered companies in 1840 to 129 in 1870. During this same period, the amount of life insurance in force grew from $4.7 million to $2 billion” (Library Company of Philadelphia Online Exhibit). While this development was of great benefit to widows and children, it opened the door to an accompanying rise in fraud. In 1872, brothers-in-law Winfield Scott Goss and William Udderzook colluded to fake Goss’s death and collect the insurance money. They staged a fire in which “Goss’s body” (in reality a medical school cadaver) was burned beyond recognition. The insurance policy was large, and the company typically reluctant to pay up. When an investigation was launched, a nervous Udderzook decided he could keep the fraud under wraps by killing Goss for real. He was quickly discovered and, after a sensational trial, hanged for the crime in 1874. McDade 1012.
Hackettstown, NJ: E. Winton, Printer, 1860. First Edition. 48 pp, in original illustrated wrappers. Some edgewear, stain to upper right corner of pages, still very good overall. McDade 438. Just a few months after having been roped into an unhappy marriage by his wife's parents, the Reverend Jacob Harden apparently decided that arsenic offered a good way out. Although he proclaimed his innocence, he did not act innocent (refusing to call a doctor when his wife took ill and fleeing after her death) and was convicted and sentenced to hang. Shortly before his execution, he gave the confession printed here. Although accepting full responsibility for his actions, he nonetheless closed with a jab at his mother-in-law: "My fate is a word of warning to professed Christians, and especially to the young, and to mothers who are seeking eligible marriages for their daughters."
Laconia, NH: John J. Lane. Undated, ca. 1892. 32 pp, illustrated with portraits and courtroom scenes. Original pictorial wrappers are missing a few large chips, and there is some staining in the text--mostly minor, but more significant on four pages (though not affecting legibility); good. On July 25, 1891, the Utica Globe published a story under the headline "Atrocity Unparalleled!" which opined that "never before did a crime throw the people of New Hampshire into such a state of wild excitement nor excite such a profound and far-reaching desire for vengeance as has the fearful roadside butchery at Hanover [N.H.] Friday evening last. Among all the many remarkable crimes which figure in New England history none exceeds in devilishness of design or brutality or boldness of execution the murder of beautiful, rich, and cultured Miss Christie Warden by the vindictive, educated, and mysterious farmhand Frank Almy. It is a remarkable story of infatuation, rejected advances and horrible revenge." This perhaps overstates the case, but the situation did have drama. After repeated attempts to win the affections of Miss Warden, Almy gave up and shot her in the head. He then made the odd decision to hide out in the Warden family barn, where he managed to go undetected for an entire month. His discovery led to a 10-hour standoff with police that ended with Almy being shot twice in the leg. Once they had him in custody, police determined that his name was actually George Abbott and that he was an escapee from the New Hampshire State Prison, where he had been serving a fifteen-year sentence for burglary. Almy confessed in an attempt to bargain for his life, but was nonetheless condemned to death.
Philadelphia: Barclay & Co., 1870. First Edition. 128 pp, with 10 wood-engraved plates. Wrappers heavily chipped, backstrip perished, pages toned and brittle, with some closed tears. A good copy only, but scarce. Hanlon, who raped and murdered a six-year-old girl, was famously brought down by a jailhouse snitch. Based upon his presence in the neighborhood and a documented earlier attempt to abduct a young girl, the police were sure Hanlon was their man, but lacked the evidence to prove it. They placed Michael Dunn, a career criminal with multiple theft convictions, in a cell with Hanlon and asked him to report back. According to Dunn, Hanlon soon spilled his guts and confessed to the murder. After a highly publicized 18-day trial in which the defense challenged Michael Dunn’s testimony as both hearsay and perjury, Hanlon was convicted and sentenced to be hanged. Dunn received a pardon for his efforts. Hanlon maintained his innocence, proclaiming at his sentencing, "If ever another such case should come to light, lay before the jury John Hanlon’s last words, and let no more blood be spilt by perjury."
Salt Lake City: Deseret News Co, 1886. First Edition. 6 pp. Disbound, but with original wrappers present. Thin strip of white paper remaining at inner edge where the pamphlet was once bound, some staining to rear wrapper, historical society stamp on title page; but still a very good copy. On December 16, 1886, Edward M. Dalton was shot in the back while fleeing from U.S. Marshals attempting to arrest him for practicing plural marriage. His death is often cited as the only case in which someone in Utah was killed in the war against polygamy. Since "unlawful cohabitation" was only a misdemeanor, there was considerable outrage over the action of the Marshal, William Thompson. Although Thompson was charged with manslaughter, the U.S. Attorney responsible for prosecuting territorial crimes argued that under statutes governing both manslaughter and the behavior of U.S. Marshals, Thompson was not guilty. A judge agreed and instructed the jury accordingly, resulting in an acquittal. This pamphlet provides the perspective of the Mormons, who found this to be just one in a series of "revolting outrages" committed against them by Federal authorities. The anonymous author provides testimony from numerous named witnesses to support his claime that Dalton was not shot because he attempted to escape (which would still have been unjustified), but that he was murdered in cold blood before he even had a chance to respond to Thompson's commands. The pamphlet concludes with a call for "Congress and the Administration of the nation" to conduct a thorough investigation of the Marshals' conduct. Flake 5667.
Maine: Conlon, C.C., 1867. Albumen photograph on carte-de-visite mount with printed title, "Luther J. Verrill, The Supposed West Auburn Murderer." Fine. Luther Verrill, a white man, was arrested and tried along with a black man named Clifton Harris for the horrifically brutal murder of two white women near Auburn, Maine, in Janurary 1867. Both men were convicted, but Verrill received a new trial and was found not guilty after Harris recanted testimony implicating him in the crime. Only one man had been executed for murder in Maine in the preceeding 30 years, and according to Galiher et al. (America Without the Death Penalty), "the execution of a black man for the murder of two white women was seen by many Mainers as a blatant act of racism....Maine's Attorney General spoke in opposition to Harris's execution. He questioned the ethics of executing Harris while the individual that likely carried out the killings (Luther J. Verrill) remained a free man....Immediately after Harris's hanging, additional evidence was found that further supported Harris's [initial] claim that Verrill was actually the murderer." This case was one of several that led to Maine's abolition of the death penalty in 1887.
Scrapbook housed in a former ledger, 8.5 x 14 inches, with the printed title "Pawnbroker's Watch Book." 100 leaves, all with clippings pasted on both sides, most dated 1899, a few later. Ledger worn, with leather spine partially perished, internally some glue staining, but otherwise very good. The compiler of this book had broad interests when it came to bad behavior and included reports of a wide variety of crimes--from sensational murders and brazen jewel robberies to embezzlement, con games, pick-pocketing, and forgery. One article recounts "Thrilling Experiences in Capturing Members of Chineese Secret Society" in San Francisco. Another tells of the "Gentleman Burgler" of Jersey City who was "Lothario by Day, Thief at Night" and another offers a "Round-Up of Notorious Gambler and Thiees in the Klondyke." There are dozens of mugshots of wanted criminals with brief notes about their crimes, while longer stories detail investigations and pursuits, arrests, confessions, trials, and sentences. There are also articles on police--most in praise of heroic actions or clever detections, but also tales of bungling and excessive use of force. With more than 450 clippings recounting events from all over the United States, this scrapbook offers a truly fascinating window onto both crime and crime journalism in the late nineteenth century.
Cleveland: Printed by the Cleveland Leader Company for John K. Stetler and Co., 1866. First Edition. 58 pp, in original printed wrappers, illustrated with a portrait of the murderer. Library stamp on front wrapper, but otherwise unmarked and a much nicer copy than usually found. Very good. Although this may not be, as the subtitle claims "a record of love, bigamny and murder unparalleled in the annals of crime," the trial of Dr. John W. Hughes was certainly one of the most sensational Cleveland had ever seen. It attracted public interest because the defendant was, when not intoxicated, a respectable citizen and recently returned Civil War veteran. However, he clearly had a weakness for wine and women. He had previously been jailed for bigamy, having married the teenaged Tamzen Parsons when he already had another wife and child. But five months in prison did not dampen his passion for the unfortunate young lady, whom he shot to death in a fit of drunken rage. According to McDade (493), he spoke at his execution for 15 minutes "until the sheriff reminded him 'Time is going.' Then he dropped." McDade identified eight holdings; OCLC lists only two physical copies (NYHS and University of Michigan).
Boston: 1830. 104 pp. Original wrappers lacking, replaced long ago with plain paper wrappers with title written by hand as "Trial of Knapp's for Murder of White." Loss of about 10 words to first page, otherwise complete, with light soiling to margins, edgewear, dog-earned pages. Fair to good overall. This is one of several contemporary publications about this famous case, which was prosecuted by Daniel Webster. Captain White was murdered for his fortune at the behest of Joseph Knapp, a relative by marriage. Knapp hired brothers George and Richard Crowninshield to do the deed. After the Crowninshields were arrested, Richard hanged himself in his cell, apparently in a failed attempt to protect his co-conspirators. George Crowninshield was tried along with Joseph Knapp and his brother, Frank. This pamphlet describes their first trial, which ended in a hung jury, despite Webster's spirited effort. Webster made good on his second try, convincing the jury to convict Frank Knapp as "present, aiding, and abetting," despite not being in the room when the murder occurred. Sabin 17708; McDade 571; see also McDade 562.
Baltimore: The Baltimore Gazette, . First Edition. 172 pp, in a later buckram binding with original front wrapper (heavily chipped at edges) bound in. Rear wrapper lacking, but otherwise complete, clean, and sound; good. Elizabeth Wharton was accused of poisoning her financial advisor, to whom she owed money. Her talented and expensive team of defense lawyers hired chemists and toxicologists to dispute the reliability of the autopsy and the scientific techniques of State witnesses. ?The case became a highly publicized ?battle of the experts? at a time when experts were still learning. Because of doubt cast on the prosecution?s work, the judge had the body exhumed and samples delivered to another chemist?whose results confirmed the earlier testing that indicated poisoning. Undeterred, the defense produced more expert witnesses, principally physicians, who raised meningitis as an alternative?cause of death. In the end, Wharton was acquitted.? (Bell, Crime and Circumstance, 77). There was much public outrage at the verdict, as ?it appeared that testimony was auctioned off to the highest bidder.? The controversy ?highlighted the need for reliable and unbiased scientific examination and testimony? and generated several attempts at legislative reform in the 1870s and 1880s. McDade 1076.
Paragould, AR: . Broadside, 5.5 x 11 inches. Stamp indicating receipt by the San Francisco Police Detective Bureau on June 24, 1912, as well as another blurred partial stamp, otherwise unmarked; very good. This wanted circular, issued by the Deputy Sheriff of Paragould, Arkansas, offers an uncommonly nuanced description of the criminal, who (according to local newspaper reports) fled after bludgeoning his wife, leaving her in a pool of water, and burning the tent they had been living in. Following the usual details of height, weight, hair and eyes, this circular describes Reed as "having a kind of silly grin and will not look you in the face when talking to you. Likes to brag about what he is worth and what he can do and will talk as long as anyone will listen....he has large feet and walks as if they were hard to move along." We have been unable to determine if this information ever led to Reed's arrest.
Windsor, VT: 1869. 138 pp, with 1 portrait, in original wrappers. Light dust soiling, previous owner's name on front wrap; very good. John Ward was convicted of carrying out a murder for hire on behalf of Charles H. Potter, who allegedly wanted his mother-in-law dead so his wife would inherit her susbtantial property. Butler, who was Chaplain of the prison where Ward ultimately hung, gives only a brief account of the murder itself, focusing instead on the investigation and trial, and recounting his own conversations with the prisoner as he awaited execution. The phrase "victimized assassin" relates to Ward's insistance that various misfortunes and the actions of others had led him to commit the crime. Butler concludes that "Alas! He destroyed himself! No man made him a murderer--not even they who duped him into the part he bore in the horrible work....the victim himself was his own destroyer." McDade 1041.
Cincinnati: 1867. First Edition. 128 pp, rebound without wrappers in green leatherette stamped in gilt. Very good. Sabin 19107. Although this compendium of Cincinnati-area murders is filled with grisly detail clearly meant to shock, thrill, and sell books, a short preface asserts a moral and educational purpose. It "should be read by all parents and their children" to avoid heading dowh the slippery slope from minor infraction to homicide. "They of both sexes will find much that they must avoid--the commission of the first little sin, may be the means of bringing them to destruction."
Boston: Published by the Author, 1882. First Edition. Hardcover. Good. 309 pp, including index and five pages of testimonials regarding the competence and credibility of the author. A good copy in original pictorial cloth; scuffed, well-rubbed at the edges, and lacking front free endpaper. McDade 447: "Mrs. Sarah Meservey was last seen alive in Tenants Harbor, Maine, on December 22, 1877. Her strangely incurious neighbors did not look behind her blinds for five weeks; then her strangled body was found. Hart, a neighbor, was convicted of her murder, mainly because he talked too much before the body was found of how he dreamed she was strangled." The author, a handwriting expert, had appeared before the grand jury as a witness for the prosecution. After he learned that a handwriting sample he had been told was written by Hart was actually by someone else, he became convinced of Hart's innocence and determined to prove it.
Providence: W. Marshall & Co., 1833. First Edition. Sewn pamphlet, 33 pp. Lacking rear wrapper, otherwise complete. Heavy wear and some chipping to fore edge, light staining and foxing. Good. In December 1832, unmarried mill worker Sarah Cornell was found hanging from the frame of a haystack in Tiverton, Rhode Island. She was five months pregnant, and a note found in her belongings (“If I should be missing, enquire of the Rev. Mr. Avery of Bristol,--he will know where I am”) implicated a prominent Methodist minister. Fearing adverse publicity, both the industrialists of Fall River and the Methodist Episcopal Church engaged in energetic campaigns to obtain a favorable verdict for Avery. The trial was one of the earliest attempts by American lawyers to prove their client innocent by assassinating the moral character of a female victim. On the other side, it also underscored deep suspicion of Methodists in old New England society. Avery was acquitted after a 27-day trial that heard testimony from 196 witnesses. The controversial verdict prompted the publication of more than a dozen accounts of the case. This one was written by the deputy sheriff who located and arrested Avery after he fled to New Hampshire, fearing the angry townspeople of Fall River would take justice into their own hands. McDade 41; see also Kasserman, Fall River Outrage.
New York: American News Company, 1870. First Edition. 58 pp, disbound and without wrappers, otherwise very good. On January 29, 1870, New York grocer and tailor William Townsend was enjoying a quiet night at home when he opened his door to the knock of a stranger who declared "You are my brother and I want to stay here tonight." Townsend understandably demurred and gently asked the stranger--Jack Reynolds--to leave. With no further provocation, Reynolds dragged Townsend out into the street and stabbed him in the heart. Reynolds' attorney made a valiant and extended effort to convince the jury that his client was insane, asking in his closing argument "Would any sane man--without revenge, without malice, without gain, without notice, have committed so horrible a crime?" and noting that Reynolds had failed to do the sane thing and dispose of the murder weapon, proudly told the police that his occupation was "thief," and made a variety of other illogical decisions. The jury was unconvinced, and Reynolds was speedily convicted and executed on April 8, 1870. McDade 796; Sabin 70423.
Portland, OR: 1946. Typed letter with typed signature ("Robert Mack"), approximately 900 words on two legal-sized pages, dated September 23, 1948, at Morningside Hospital in Portland, Oregon. Folding creases, otherwise fine. Enio Robert Mack (b. 1909) was a World War II veteran from Juneau, Alaska who lived with his parents. On July 3, 1948, he shot and killed his father, Finnish immigrant Andrew Mack. Within three weeks, he was tried, judged insane, and committed for life to Morningside Hospital, which held a federal contract to provide in-patient psychiatric services for Alaskans. In this chilling letter, Mack tells his sister that their father ("that moron") had been drinking heavily and abusing their mother. "One morning he came into my room with his eye's blazeing with hatred and shouted at me to be ready because, I was plotting against him with mother, he had taken all the axe's and a single-jack from the cellar and had place them on the porch, I could only come to the conclusion that he was insane... and that he would kill me or mother." This led Robert to break the lock on the gun cabinet and sit on the porch with a rifle, waiting for his father to come home. After warning his father not to come into the house, he "fired and killed him instantly." He further justifes the killing with the assertion that "he was color or race conscience [sic], and had the intelligence of a moron who would champion a negro above a white race...He had no right to marry a white person because he champion the black race." (Andrew Mack, it is worth noting, was white.) He criticizes his brother for testifying at trial to their father's good character, saying "the result was that I was sent to this hospital for life, as a person who is so mentally unbalanced as to have taken the life, of a person without a reason or a just cause." Although Mack clearly believed he was sane, his closing complaint that "the right side of my brain is infected, from bone decaying the right side of the skull" may suggest otherwise.
Davenport, IA: Egbert, Fidlar, & Chambers, 1895. First Edition. 260 pp, illustrated with portraits of various people associated with the case. Bound in original grey cloth boards with title stamped in black. Pages toned, handwritten note on front pastedown ("Facts known + written by a neighbor at Sigourney, Iowa"), all else very good. Three copies located in OCLC. In 1893, three-year-old Ray Elliott disappeared while playing near his home in Marengo, Iowa. Fourteen months later, a boy matching Ray's description was abandoned in the town of Waterloo, about 60 miles away. Although this boy failed to recognize his father and said his name was Roy Burke, Mr. Eliot was convinced he was Ray, and brought him back to Marengo, where he was said to have instantly recognized Mrs. Elliot as his monther. But the joy of reunion was short lived. Members of the Burke family soon appeared and instigated habeas corpus proceedings for the recovery of the boy. Lengthy court proceedings ensued. Although the evidence apparently never fully resolved the matter, the child was awarded to the Elliots, who were perceived to be of better moral character than the Burkes. According to a later newspaper account, "the town was divided over the matter, some contending the boy returned was Ray Elliot, others, as long as they lived, stoutly maintained that the real Ray Elliot was never found and that the returned boy was Roy Burke." In 2002, a writer working on a play about the case located descendants of both families and paid for DNA testing. The results--which were dramatically revealed at the end of the play--showed that the child raised by the Elliots was, in fact, their own.
Boston: Russell & Gardner, 1820. First Edition. 24 pp, disbound. Lacking rear wrapper, some foxing, archival repairs; good. Sabin 64799. Powers was an Irish immigrant who settled in Boston in 1802, found steady work as a laborer, and lived frugally. He volunteered to finance the migration of several of his Irish cousins, with the understanding that they would repay him from their wages as soon as they found employment. After one of them, Timothy Kennedy, failed to follow through, Powers had him arrested. At trial, however, Kennedy's story was believed over Powers', which "enraged him beyond measure." Powers murdered Kennedy with an axe buried him in a cellar. Although defended by the great Daniel Webster, he was convicted and condemned to death. Despite being a convicted axe murder, Powers was senstitive to criticism and dictated this pamphlet in order to counteract all of the "idle and cruel reports" about him, "each one ornamented with so many horrors." McDade 767.
Manchester, VT: Journal Book and Job Office, 1873. First Edition. 48 pp, in original printed wrappers. Mild toning; near fine. Published 54 years after the fact, this is an account of the wrongful conviction of brothers Jesse and Stephen Boorn for the murder of their mentally deficient brother-in-law, who was eventually discovered (just six weeks before Stephen Boorn was scheduled for execution) to have wandered off of his own accord. Sargeant, who was one of the Boorns' defense attorneys, concludes his narrative with a general discussion of (and warning about) the fallibility of investigators, witnesses, and juries. McDade 113.
Los Angeles: Louis S. Sonney. Second edition. Undated, but ca. 1924. 32 pp, original wrappers, with four illustrations from photographs and a small map. Archivally repaired tear to front wrap, some chipping and light soiling; about very good. Gardner was a notorious armed robber who stole more thant $350,000 in cash and securities from banks and mail trains. He escaped from custody many times and had a $5,000 bounty on his head when he was arrested by the author of this pamphlet, a Centralia, Washington police officer. Sonney, who characterizes Gardner as "humane, generous, industrious, and very likeable, but withal courageous, determined, and with nerves of steel, or none at all," offers a fairly straightforward account of his subject's early life and criminal exploits. He details the various escapes and manhunts of 1920 and 1921, ending with Gardner's incarceration at Leavenworth Penitentiary, where he remained "safely behind four reinforced concrete walls, each 30 feet high, charged wires on the top, and a small standing army of guards on the outside and about 250 on the inside." In 1925, Gardner was transferred to Atlanta Federal Prison, where he led a failed escape attempt that ended with his transfer to Alcatraz. He remained there until 1939, when he was granted clemency. Six-Guns 2063. Scarce; 6 copies located in OCLC, all in California.